In short, Gamification is to use game mechanics in a non-game context. The most used mechanics are elements like progress bar, levels, scoreboard, points, and badges. The choice of the mechanics depends on the products, context, and user profiles.
The overall purpose of using 2D and 3D gamification learning formats and interactions is to increase human cognition and motivation. Studies conclude that game-based learning increases engagement as it gets more interesting and fun to learn by rewarding, involving, and challenging the users.
Gamification as method is not limited to 3D universes. It is widely used in 2D e-learning and even in non-digital contexts. The scalability is endless, and the implementation degree can range from using only a small progress bar to full implementation of the methods and mechanics.